Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Introduction Organisational group behaviour comprises of a wide array of topics ranging from sociology, psychology, management, to communication among others. All these elementary principles are critical to the formation of an effective group. This area is a dynamic concept that has received a lot of attention because the various theories regarding organisational group behaviour are somewhat novel in their application in this context.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Organisational Group Behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As such, the theories have existed for quite a long time, for instance, the vital quality of communication as an icebreaker in any relationship, but their specific application to an organisational context requires further expertise. Numerous theorists have attempted to piece together what necessary elements are requisite in achieving this desirable intricate balance, and most of these theorists have ended up writing books that are too complex for lay managers and group leaders. Subsequently, readers and authors alike are in the quest for a simplistic explanation of what comprises organisational behaviour, as well as analogous case studies and real-life examples of how to apply this knowledge. Based on this background, this paper seeks to use the publications of two Ã¢â¬Å"more comprehendibleÃ¢â¬ authors, Ian BrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Organisational Behaviour: Individuals, Groups and OrganisationÃ¢â¬ (13 Nov 2008) and John HuntÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Managing People at Work: A ManagerÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide to Behaviour in OrganisationsÃ¢â¬ (1 Apr 1992), to provide a better understanding of organisational group behaviour concepts and theory. Structural context There are several possible entry views to organisational group behaviour. One such view bases its arguments on the time factor and classifies its discourse within the modern, symbolic, and postmodern view. This view is a very general theory as the finer elements as motivation and communication are lost in the attempt to categorise organisational behaviour into periods. Conversely, another view subdivides its discourse into a bi-pronged format comprising of macro and micro organisational behaviour.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Under this view, micro-organisational group behaviour focuses on the dynamics of relations between individuals in groups within a particular organisation, whereas macro organisational behaviour focuses on the wider perspective of inter-organisational and inter-industrial relationships of organisational groups. It follows that this dimension is the preferable view within the context of this paper because the second dimension, (macro) builds on the theories observed with the first (micro) as they are similar but applied on a wider scale. As such, loo king at the macro level simply expounds the initial theories while introducing minimal additional information that becomes significant at the macro level. Both Brooks and Hunt use this perspective in their textbooks, and this aspect assists the reader in further understanding the concepts they are building. Principle-agent problem and the Incentive Theory (motivation) This theory is a cocktail of both human resource and management theory and is expounded by both Brooks and Hunt. Conventionally, the incentive theory is one among the variety of motivation theories such as MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of needs, equity, and the attributive theory. It posits that human beings need some form of incentive that arouses their desire to achieve a certain envisioned goal. Brooks opines that the motivational force ought to direct the subjects and maintain their concentration upon the attaining of the goal, otherwise the force would be ineffective and the goal would remain elusive. Hunt builds on t his opinion by referring to the misguided notion of monetary gain as an incentive. He asserts that money alone cannot maintain an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on achieving some goal; moreover, he observes that other extrinsic factors such as the work environment and labour gratification are key players in maintaining motivation. However, a study conducted by Fehr and Gotte (2007) indicates that monetary rewards are the major driving forces of improved performance. In this context, Brooks fails to categorise work places and appreciate the fact that in some organisations especially in developing countries, workers would rather work under abusive conditions than to lose their only source of income, something that Fehr and Gotte highlight clearly in their study.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Organisational Group Behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Laffont and Martimort (20012) also note that monetary rewards remain at the top in the hierarchy of employee motivation. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s capitalistic market place the majority of workers just want to have money, lots of it and thus money remains a key motivation element. Industrial Revolution Brooks and Hunt discuss this concept although in different dimensions. The industrial revolution is responsible for the diversification of labour and the labour market. It follows that individual group members have possibly invested in human capital to attain proficiency in a variety of tasks. Consequently, organisational groups are often infiltrated with diverse individuals with just as diverse skills; therefore, organisations in need of those skills find themselves at a risk of losing priceless talent and profits if they are incapable of managing the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s staff as per the optimal standards. Brooks states that, on-the-job trainers invest millions each year to internal educational programs meant to qualify employees and employer s to the specific or customised needs of various task forces. However, he adds, such investment can easily turn into loss statements if the firm does not set its house in order in terms of the other elements necessary to retain group satisfaction. He suggests that organisational group behaviour in the 21st century has since shifted from the scientific approach theory that only required leaders to identify the objectives then appoint customised members to fulfil their respective related obligations. Instead, it has shifted in line with human relations approach, which was a result of the Hawthorne studies that determined the significance of group norms on human behaviour and work output. Beyond that, the decision making approach that alludes to principles of opportunity cost comes into play and asserts that for optimal results, group members should be in a position to sacrifice decisions that would not yield optimal conditions for goal achievement when making goal-oriented decisions.A dvertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He further states that for such a decision to be made, loyalty to the group is necessary, and that there exists several ways of earning such loyalty including achieving group-member buy-in, which refers to feelings of ownership in the desired objectives that group members are required to achieve. There are several possible ways of accomplishing this starting with involving members in decision and strategy design. Building a comprehensive group culture that the members identify with, as a constant during turbulent times, also helps along the turbulent journey to achieving loyalty in a group. Additionally, it is important to ensure that in appointing duties, the process is equitable and uniform in order to avoid social loafing, which refers to the tendency of some group members taking a spectator approach leaving the majority of the tasks to more competent members. In an attempt to counter this element, Hunt holds that there should be specification of tasks for each group member, to e nsure that every group produces results necessary for the comprehensive conclusion of the task. He also suggests that members should be motivated so that they do not feel dispensable and this aspect requires the delegation of equally challenging tasks, which require effort and cooperation to achieve. Hunt introduces the Neo-HumanÃ¢â¬â¢s relations school concept that is fit for the modern organisational group due to its allegiance to various famous theories, especially MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs. As such, members will work optimally if all five levels of human needs, viz. psychological, love, safety, esteem, and self-actualisation are met. He adds that the self-transcendence tier that Maslow added to his hierarchy near death also requires attention, as in his opinion, this tier underscores the inexorable force behind the success of philanthropic successes. Additionally, he suggests theory Y dimensions of management by asserting that members inherently act responsibly while on a task and that the role of leadership is to ensure that they achieve their individual goals through working on the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives. Hunt favours theory Y and states that it carries the mark of true leadership in any organisation to get the employees to work as if they were building their own personal business, while working for the organisation. This concept builds on BrooksÃ¢â¬â¢ buy-in concept. Nevertheless, Bobic and Davis (2003) note that theory Y has many inherent weaknesses, which underscore why many firms have failed miserably in the contemporary market place; therefore, they insist that theory X would work best for these firms. Stewart (2010) echoes these sentiments and states that while theory Y might underscore one of the best management techniques, it is not applicable across board and thus it might score poorly in some cases. Communication Communication is a vital element of any groupÃ¢â¬â¢s dynamics and it comes into play when any task is to be executed. Communication in a group can be categorised into two basic faucets. First, there is the leader-member communication that transcends the vertical structure of the group and is made manifest in case a new task is to be achieved. Groups should set up forums for discussing new responsibilities among members including the best implementation technique, and when there is participation at this initial stage of decision-making, the transition into the new policy becomes smoother. Secondly, the significance of confidentiality of shared communication cannot be overemphasised. The concept of assessment results is a sensitive issue especially if it is internal and members are required to evaluate each other. Assessors should be sensitive to malice as this element can adversely affect the report done on a member. As organisations continue to market free and open communication, whistle blowers find themselves in jeopardy of losing their employment or its equivalent in the form of their status at work among peers. Therefore, it is critical to guarantee that their complaints shall be handled with utmost confidentiality and ethical means in order to foster free disclosure and raise the ethical standards of the organisation. Linked to this concept is the management of unethical conduct. Brooks suggests that any viable organisation should put in place some structured methods of dealing with unethical behaviour within its ranks, and that such a method should be applied uniformly and persistently regardless of who the victim may be. This, he adds, shall be instrumental in inspiring confidence among workers due to the predictability of the system. Group leadership Through job design, praise, constructive feedback, and goal setting, a leader can motivate members to perform better. As concerns goals, SMART goals, viz. Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time bound goals are very effective. Leadership marks a point of divergence between Brooks and Hunt as the la tterÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of ideal leadership is one that orders and controls member behaviour to achieve organisational goals, whereas Brooks prefers leadership that advances member interests and manages to accomplish organisational objectives simultaneously. As per Brooks, such leadership is characterised by extrinsic features of openness such as open offices and regular assessments of performance aimed at improving memberÃ¢â¬â¢s prospects of advancements. This argument disappears from HuntÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of a visible gap between the management and human resource departments of an organisation, which features leaders receiving blatant displays of an appreciation for their status in the form of fringe benefits and accolades. Whereas both authors drive a poignant point, this paper insists that, a less-obvious gap between the two groups is more favourable. However, Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn (2000) note that it is important have clear-cut boundaries defining who is in charge because in the absence of such a distinction, anarchy or chaos could easily emerge and thus lead to the disintegration of a group. Conclusion This paper has briefly compared and contrasted the views of two famous authors of organisational group behaviour in a contemporary concept. It has analysed several areas of interest including motivation, the industrial revolution its impact on organisational groups, communication, and leadership. Both authors are commendable in their brief yet very comprehensive analysis of group behaviour, and the credibility of each other is somewhat reaffirmed when oneÃ¢â¬â¢s views complement the otherÃ¢â¬â¢s. However, Mr. Brooks is more convincing of the two and this paper has capitalised on his superior positions on group behaviour. Reference List Bobic, M Davis, W 2003, Ã¢â¬ËA Kind Word for Theory X: Or Why So Many Newfangled Management Techniques Quickly FailÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Public Admin. Research and Theory, vol. 13 no. 3, pp. 239-264. Fehr, E Gott e, L 2007, Ã¢â¬ËDo workers work more when wages are high? Evidence from a randomised field experimentÃ¢â¬â¢, American Economic Review, vol. 97 no. 1, pp. 298-317. Laffont, J Martimort, D 2001, The Theory of Incentives: The Principal Agent Model, Princeton University Press, New Jersey. Schermerhorn, R, Hunt, J Osborn, N 2000, Organisational Behaviour, Wiley, New York. Stewart, M 2010, Ã¢â¬ËTheories X and Y RevisitedÃ¢â¬â¢, Oxford Leadership Journal, vol. 1 no. 3, pp. 81-87. This research paper on Organisational Group Behaviour was written and submitted by user Shania Kerr to help you with your own studies. 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Sunday, November 24, 2019
HIGHBALL What is highball? An exaggeration of the truth to benefit the person that is highballing. To stretch the truth. To extend the truth to fit oneÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of what should have been the truth in their mind. An outright LIE! YouÃ¢â¬â¢re going to class and you see a fellow classmate and you both have Biology together. Last week you both took a test in Biology on Cell Division. Your fellow classmate asks you what you got on that test. You say, I got an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ but in reality you really received a Ã¢â¬Å"BÃ¢â¬ (89). The Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ sounded better, you just highballed your fellow classmate. Your profession is to sell cars, to sell as many cars as you can on a month to month basis. Salespeople highball all the time. An example of this would be when a salesperson is asked what their yearly average is, and they respond that they average 10 units a month. In actuality this salesperson has only sold 10 units one of the months out of the whole year. The salesperson has just highballed his average so that it would sound as if he was averaging about 10 units each month. The same can go for customers. I personally have been a sales associate. I sold furniture. Many times when customers purchase furniture, it being so costly, many customers had to finance their purchases. I would take an application on the customer, which required information like how much they make a month, how much money they have to pay out a month, and collateral. All of the information being verified, but commonly a customer would tell me they make two thousand five hundred dollars a month, when in reality they make about eighteen hundred dollars a month. When verifying how many bills and the amounts they pay out on those bills, I found that most customers had highball the figures. All this just so they could get approved to purchase merchandise by financing it. Common knowledge, you would think, would keep the customer from highballing the figures to their advantage, kno... Free Essays on Highball Free Essays on Highball HIGHBALL What is highball? An exaggeration of the truth to benefit the person that is highballing. To stretch the truth. To extend the truth to fit oneÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of what should have been the truth in their mind. An outright LIE! YouÃ¢â¬â¢re going to class and you see a fellow classmate and you both have Biology together. Last week you both took a test in Biology on Cell Division. Your fellow classmate asks you what you got on that test. You say, I got an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ but in reality you really received a Ã¢â¬Å"BÃ¢â¬ (89). The Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ sounded better, you just highballed your fellow classmate. Your profession is to sell cars, to sell as many cars as you can on a month to month basis. Salespeople highball all the time. An example of this would be when a salesperson is asked what their yearly average is, and they respond that they average 10 units a month. In actuality this salesperson has only sold 10 units one of the months out of the whole year. The salesperson has just highballed his average so that it would sound as if he was averaging about 10 units each month. The same can go for customers. I personally have been a sales associate. I sold furniture. Many times when customers purchase furniture, it being so costly, many customers had to finance their purchases. I would take an application on the customer, which required information like how much they make a month, how much money they have to pay out a month, and collateral. All of the information being verified, but commonly a customer would tell me they make two thousand five hundred dollars a month, when in reality they make about eighteen hundred dollars a month. When verifying how many bills and the amounts they pay out on those bills, I found that most customers had highball the figures. All this just so they could get approved to purchase merchandise by financing it. Common knowledge, you would think, would keep the customer from highballing the figures to their advantage, kno...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Studies in Literature - Essay Example A plot carries nine elements including exposition, foreshadowing, inciting force, conflict, rising action, crisis, climax, falling action and denouement. The three elements of plot have been described below: (ii) Conflict: Conflict is the central and most dominant part of the piece of literature, which is the basic element in the creation of plot itself. The developments in the story are dependent of rising of manÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict with his social set up, culture, religious belief or his own self. (iii) Rising Action: Rising action simply means the subsequent chain of events created in the aftermath of conflict. Rising action is generally the outcome of immediate provocation or inciting force that paves the way towards reaching the climax point. NOVEL: Literally means something new, latest or innovative, novel refers to the work of fiction, story or tale, narrating some anecdote about one or few specific character(s) in a long prose form. Novel is stated to be the invention of 18th century, and RichardsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Pamela (1741) is considered as the first novel in the history of English literature. Though novel arrived as a genre of literature very late in comparison with the drama and poetry, yet it immediately captured the attention of the readers everywhere, and has become one of the most popular forms of modern literature. A novelette also contains the same characteristics as carried by a novel, but the major difference between the two is this that novel consists of comparatively large number of words and characters, while a novelette is precise in respect of words and list of characters. Tolstoy maintains remarkable command over portraying the bitter realities of life on the one hand, and pointing out the prevailing social evils on the other. Being a highly sensitive writer and a brilliant observer, he skilfully inter-knits the events happening in the life of his
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
WAL-MART ORGANIZATION - Essay Example Nevertheless, history has a different story in the waves the organization has had to face on the way to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s position as a global player. The organization internal environment business model is based on value proposition, which rides of offering everyday low price. Distribution efforts in the organization are effectively planned to have the organization have direct contact with customers through media adverts as well as through such cheap means as internet. The organization has also effective customer relations through self-service as well as automated services for efficiency and effectiveness. It highly esteems basic resources spanning from the physical ones including logistics and physical stores, human resources as well as the organizational culture. The organization acknowledges the role of the forces of internal as well as external business environments in shaping the success of the business. Despite the internal organizational structure, the organization holds own emp loyees with esteem as critical part of the internal environment of the organization. Competition as an external factor has continuously influenced the operations of the organization with special attention being taken for the sake of monitoring and keeping pace with competitive developments in the industry (Davis, 2007). Among other notable strengths of Wal-Mart organization are growth and high returns through customer satisfaction, creating profits as well as enhancing value for shareholders. The capacity of the organization to expand continuously into new markets and opening new stores, integrating new online channels as well as upholding great success in innovation and... The great vision and dedication of the top management of the Wal-Mart organization ever since its establishment has been acknowledged to play a critical role in the success of the organization. Leadership has been seen to play a great role in the performance of the organization despite the competition pressures that have been pointed out to form the basis of derailing the organization from realizing the guiding mission. This would form my basis of recommendation to the management of the organization. Competition has become quite dynamic in almost all aspects of business dealings and no one business or industry is immune to the challenge. In this understanding, adoption of rather dynamic management practices is inevitable for an organization to keep pace with the global trends. Adoption of centralized inventory system through which management of the various chain stores of the organization is inevitable in order to have the organization realizes the strategic objectives and goals. I p ropose to the owner of Wal-Mart to uphold high levels of innovation and creativity in management practices in order to cut on the rising costs and command a competitive niche through continuously offering lower prices. This is because other competitors in the industry would rise in competition through exploiting these competitive niches while the Wal-Mart organization does not.
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The Role of NGOs in Chechen Conflict - Research Paper Example When the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, Chechnya, which was then part Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic in Northern Caucasus, also declared its independence. It was in December 1994 that the Russian Federation launched a military operation against the rebelling state. This ended in 1996 with a humiliating defeat for Russia, and Aslan Maskhadov was elected as Chechen President in 1997. However, despite of peace treaty signed between the two countries, Chechnya relapsed in a turmoil that the fairly elected president was unable to control. This was due to the destruction from the war, failure of Russia to provide promised war reparations, external interference by Islamic radicals, swelling crime and inter-Chechen enmities, which granted excuse to the Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin to launch a second war against Chechnya in 1999, in name of combating international terrorism, but with an obvious purpose of forcing Chechnya back into the Federation (Faurby, 1999). The combat continues as a guerrilla war with ample loss of life and resources on both sides and bleak prospects for hostilities to end soon. International humanitarian laws and human rights laws have been extensively violated on both sides. Reports estimate death toll to be around 80000 since, while the number of displaced to the neighbouring Dagestan is estimated to be 300000 (IRC, c.2006). Russian political leaders were insistent that the warfare was an internal matter for Russia, something that many western leaders were eager to approve, as they did not want the Chechen conflict to hinder their relations (Cornell, 1999). This was not only politically problematic, but also a breach of international laws. However, as the Non Governmental Organization (NGOs) like the Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International increase their activities in human rights field by bringing to light the violations and lobbying
Friday, November 15, 2019
CHF3 Decomposition by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor Decomposition of CHF3 by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor Duc Ba Nguyen and Won Gyu Lee* Abstract Oxidation of CHF3 was investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor was immersed in an electrical insulating oil. The feed gases was mixed of CHF3, O2 and N2 with O2/N2 ratio of 21/79 volume/volume. The results obtained that 98.98% of CHF3 in the feed gases were destruction under: applied voltage of 7kV, frequency of 30 kHz; total flow rate of 100 ml/min with initial CHF3 concentration of 5%. Herein, selectivity of CO and CO2 in the products was 3.42% and 91.18%, respectively. Decomposition of CHF3 could be increased by improved plasma condition such as increasing applied voltage, increased frequency and decreased initial CHF3 concentration in the feed gases. Keywords: CHF3, dielectric barrier discharge, electrical insulating oil, plasma reaction, oxidation of CHF3 Introduction Decomposition of trifluoromethane (CHF3) is high potential reduce greenhouse gases. Because the 100 years global warming potential of CHF3 is 12000 . Several methods have been employed for the decomposition of CHF3 such as thermal process [2-4], catalyst [5, 6]; plasma or combined plasma with catalyst (CPC) [7-11]. Thermal oxidation is one of effective CHF3 decomposition . However, HF acid and formation fluorinated compounds existed in the exhaust gas stream along with high operation temperature (1473 K) . It mean that the process is high cost, require material reactor and concern environmental. Thus, other process are required for treatment of exhaust gas such as absorbed acids, cooling process and decomposition of fluorinated compounds before ambient atmospheric emission [2, 11]. Catalyst methods could be reduced operation temperatures in the abatement of CHF3. However, HF formation and also operation temperature above 500 0C lead to reducing effective of catalyst [13-15]. Several above challenges could be solved by plasma or CPC, including, non-thermal plasma (NTP) is attractive and effective decomposition of CHF3 [16, 17]. Decomposition of CHF3 in NTP is lead to interaction between of high energy electrons, radicals and gas molecules. Herein, NTP could be generated high energy electr ons and radicals under high energy electrical. Therefore, decomposition of CHF3 could be performed at room temperature, ambient atmospheric pressure, fast conversion and easy realization by plasma method. However, several researchers have been reported the decomposition of CHF3 by catalyst or CPC with several thousand parts per million of CHF3 in the feed gases [18, 19]. It demonstrated that process yields were low. Moreover, the emission source of CHF3 is semiconductor industries, air condition, polystyrene industries and commercial refrigeration. So that the gas waste included CHF3 and air. Therefore, abatement of CHF3 in the gas waste is need before into atmosphere. In this study, decomposition of CHF3 with Zero Air (21% O2 and 79% N2) performed in a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge reactor under initial CHF3 concentration was not less than 5.0% (v/v). The reactor was immersed in an electrically insulating oil bath. Effect of several factors on the reaction investigated, namely, applied voltage, applied frequency, initial CHF3 concentration in the feed gas. These factors were examined on the decomposition of CHF3 and product components. Experimental The schematic of the experiment setup is shown in Fig. 1. A system is composed of four main parts: a feed gas system, an AC high voltage pulse power supply, a plasma reactor, and an analysis system. The reactor has an inner stainless steel stick as the power electrode that is 15 mm in diameter. The power electrode was placed inside a quartz tube as a dielectric barrier. Its outer diameter was 20 mm, and its thickness was 1.5 mm. Therefore, the discharge gap was fixed at 1.0 mm. Copper foil was wrapped around the quartz tube as the ground electrode, and its length was 200 mm. Thus, the discharge volume was about 10 ml. The plasma reactor was immersed in an electrically insulating oil bath (transformed oil provided by Michang Oil, KSC2301). The volume of electrical insulating oil bath was about 5000 ml. AC pulse power supply with 2 kW capacity was used for plasma ignition, which had a supply voltage and a frequency up to 30 kV (peak-to-peak) and 30 kHz, respectively. The electrical power was controlled by manual adjustment of the applied voltage level. The power waveforms were recorded by an oscilloscope (Tektronix 2012B). Fig. 2 showed a typical voltage, current, and discharge power waveforms generated under the process condition: total flow rate of 100 ml/min with CHF3 in the feed of 5% (v/v), frequency of 30 kHz; applied voltage of 7 kV. Discharge power was integral of current and voltage as shown in the equation below: Discharge power (P), (1) All of the experiments were performed at ambient atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The volume of gas products was measured by a soap-bubble flow meter. The composition of the gas products was analyzed by a gas chromatograph (GC, Younglin YL6100GC) equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and a flame ionization detector (FID). A CarboxenTM 1010 PLOT capillary column was used in the GC column and the flow rate of Ar as a carrier was 6.0 ml/min. The products of plasma reaction with mixing of CHF3, O2 and N2 included N2O, NO2, COF2, F2, CF4, CO, CO2, CHF3, O2, N2 and so on . However, the GC analysis could detect the reaction products including CO, CO2, and CHF3. According to the analysis of the products, the overall conversion, carbon balance and selectivity were defined as follows: (2) (3) (4) (5) Results and discussion Effect of applied voltage An applied voltage is important factor in the plasma process. Which is usually used to ignite and sustain glow discharge. Moreover, the degree of plasma reaction depend on the level of applied voltage, for example conversion of reactants and selectivity of products [19, 20]. The effect of applied voltage on the reaction was investigated under applied voltage from 4 to 7 kV, total flow rate of 100 ml/min with CHF3 concentration of 5% in the feed gases; frequency of 30 kHz. The results was shown as in fig 3. At applied voltage of 4 kV, the conversion of CHF3 obtained at 0%, however, the conversion of CHF3 was increased sharply from 5 to 7 kV applied voltage in fig 3 (a). The results demonstrated that energy input at applied voltage of 4 kV into discharge zone was not enough for dissociation of gases molecules. It due to lack of electron and radical formation for plasma reaction. However, electron and radicals for plasma reaction could be formed when applied voltage above of 4 kV. In ad dition, bond-dissociation energy of F-CHF2 and H-CF3 were 539.9 and 445.2 kJ/mol-1 at 298 K, respectively . Discharge power increased sharply from 8 to 41 W, when applied voltage increased from 5 to 7 kV. It was caused of increasing CHF3 conversion in these experiments. Consequently, concentration of CHF3 in the gas outlet was 0.054% at applied voltage of 7 kV as shown in fig 3(b). An applied voltage was also effect on the component of gas outlet. The concentration of CO2 were increased significantly by increasing applied voltage from 5 to 7 kV, while, the concentration of CO were changed slightly during those experiments as shown in fig 3(b). In fact that, more radical and molecules in the discharge zone could be formed under high discharge power such as F, H, CF3, CF2, COF2, COF, CO, CO2, F2 and so on . Therefore, conversion of reactants and products formation increased. Moreover, the selectivity of CO2 increased from 40% to 89% when applied voltage from 5 to 6 kV. Consequently, it increased slightly at applied voltage of 7 kV as shown in fig 3 (c). On the contract, the selectivity of CO decreased slightly from 5 to 6 kV and then it decreased gradually at applied voltage of 7 kV. The results due to increasing radical oxygen formation in the discharge zone when applied voltage increased from 5 to 7 kV. Carbon balance decreased slightly, when applied voltag e increased from 6 to 7 kV. It mean that total selectivity of CO and CO2 decreased. In fig 3 (c) shown that decreased selectivity of CO caused of reducing carbon balance. As the results, the maximum conversion of CHF3 obtained at 98.98% under applied voltage of 7 kV, frequency of 30 kHz, total flow rate of 100 ml/min and CHF3 concentration in the feed gases of 5%. Herein, the selectivity of CO2 and CO 91.18% and 3.42% in the product, respectively. Effect of initial CHF3 concentration Conversion of reactants could be improved by reducing initial amount of reactants in the feed. However, it caused of decreasing yield processing. Effect of initial CHF3 concentration on the reactions were investigated under applied voltage of 7 kV, frequency of 30 kHz and total flow rate of 100 ml/min. The results was shown in fig 4. The conversion of CHF3 decreased slightly from 98.98% to 95.94% when initial CHF3 concentration in the feed increased from 5% to 15%. It was as shown in fig 4 (a). The results demonstrated that conversion rate of CHF3 depended slightly on the range of initial CHF3 concentration. It was due to increased amount of CHF3 molecules in the discharge zone together with decreasing power discharge when initial CHF3 concentration increased as shown in fig 4 (a). Because of total flow rate constant, if CHF3 molecules increased then Nitrogen and oxygen molecules decreased. Moreover, bond-dissociation energy of O-O was 498.36 kJ/mol-1 at 298K. It is low than bond-dis sociation energy of F-CHF2 (539.9 kJ/mol-1) but higher than that of H-CF3 (445.2 kJ/mol-1) at 298 K . At initial CHF3 concentration of 15%, the ratio of CHF3/O2 in the feed was 1/1.19. Several reason above due to conversion of CHF3 depended slightly in the range of initial CHF3. Initial concentration of CHF3 was effective on the concentration of CO2 in the products. However, it did not significantly on the concentration of CO and CHF3 in the products as shown in fig 4 (b). In the detail, concentration of CO2 increased from 4.79% to 14.20% when initial CHF3 concentration increased from 5% to 15%. On the other hand, concentration of CO were increased from 0.18% to 0.38%, while, increasing CHF3 concentration remain from 0.05% to 0.69%, respectively. In fig 4 (c) presented that the selectivity of CO and CO2 were decreased slightly by increasing initial CHF3 concentration in the feed gases. They caused of decreasing carbon balance during increasing initial CHF3 concentration in the feed. As the results, reactant conversion and products selectivity were depending slightly on the initial CHF3 concentration from 5% to 15% in these experiments. Effect of frequency Frequency of applied power is important factor along with voltage. Because they effected on the discharge power (equation 1) and applied power waveform. The effect of frequency on the reaction were investigated under condition of 7 kV applied voltage and 100 ml/min total flow rate with 5% CHF3 concentration in the feed. The results was shown in fig 5. It showed that the conversion of CHF3 increased significantly from 10 to 20 kHz; then it increased slightly at frequency of 30 kHz. While, discharge power increased gradually when frequency increased from 10 to 30 kHz as shown in fig 5(a). One of reason increased CHF3 conversion was increased discharge power when applied frequency increased from 10 to 30 kHz. Applied frequency also effect on the component of products. It was shown in fig 5 (b). Concentration of CO2 increased significantly from 2.89% to 4.79%, while, concentration of CO decreased from 0.36% to 0.18% when applied frequency increased from 10 to 30 kHz. Although, decreased CO concentration rate is twice when applied frequency from 10 to 30 kHz but it was small compared with concentration of CO2 in the products. As the same trend of concentration in products, the selectivity of CO2 increased, while, the selectivity of CO decreased when increased applied frequency as shown in fig 5 (c). The results presented that trend of CO2 and CO selectivity were opposed. It was caused of carbon balance did not change significantly from 10 to 20 kHz. However, carbon balance were increased when applied frequency increased from 20 to 30 kHz. It could be explained by that the selectivity of CO2 increased was more than reducing of CO selectivity at frequency of 30 kHz. Therefore, total molecules of CO and CO2 were increased when increased applied frequency from 20 to 30 kHz. In addition, carbon balance depending on total molecules of CO and CO2 (Equation 3). Consequently, increasing of applied frequency was not only increasing CHF3 conversion and CO2 selectivity but also reduced the selectivity of CO. Conclusion Destruction of CHF3 with zero air by a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge immersed in the electrically insulating oil bath was investigated. Several factors were effect on the reaction has been studied such as applied voltage, frequency and initial reactant concentration. The conversion of CHF3 was improved by increasing applied voltage and frequency; decreasing initial concentration of CHF3 in the feed gases. One of reason was the factors effect on the discharge power in the plasma reaction. The results demonstrated that the reactor was potential for CHF3 decomposing with initial reactant concentration was from 5% to 15% in the feed gases. More 95% of CHF3 in the feed could be destructed to CO, CO2 and so on, herein, total selectivity of CO and CO2 was more than 85% in the products. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MEST) (2010-0007450). References  D. HoughtonJT, N. GriggsDJ, D. Van der LindenPJ, J. MaskellK, Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2001).  A. McCulloch, Background_240305. pdf [Accessed 15 April 2010] (2005).  W. Han, E.M. Kennedy, S.K. Kundu, J.C. Mackie, A.A. Adesina, B.Z. Dlugogorski, J. Fluorine Chem. 131 (2010) 751.  P. Zhang, L. Cao, R. Pan, Z. Jiang, K. Qin, Q. Li, Procedia Engineering 62 (2013) 337.  N. Nagasaki, Y. Morikuni, K. Kawada, S. Arai, Catal. Today 88 (2004) 121.  G. Luo, Y. Luo, J. Qu, New J. Chem. 37 (2013) 3274.  H. Sekiguchi, T. Honda, A. Kanzawa, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 13 (1993) 463.  A.B. Murphy, T. McAllister, Phys. Plasmas 8 (2001) 2565.  M.B. Chang, H.M. Lee, Catal. Today 89 (2004) 109.  D.H. Kim, Y.S. Mok, S.B. Lee, S.M. Shi, J. Adv. Oxid. Technol. 13 (2010) 36.  W. Han, Y. Li, H. Tang, H. Liu, J. Fluorine Chem. 140 (2012) 7.  Validation Projects Methodologies: AM0001, Unfccc (2014) Accesed on 01/16 https://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/Validation/index.html  H. Onoda, T. Ohta, J. Tamaki, K. Kojima, Applied Catalysis A: General 288 (2005) 98.  W.B. Feaver, J.A. Rossin, Catal. Today 54 (1999) 13.  J.Y. Jeon, X.-F. Xu, M.H. Choi, H.Y. Kim, Y.-K. Park, Chem. Commun. (2003) 1244.  C.L. Hartz, J.W. Bevan, M.W. Jackson, B.A. Wofford, Environ. Sci. Technol. 32 (1998) 682.  B.A. Wofford, M.W. Jackson, C. Hartz, J.W. Bevan, Environ. Sci. Technol. 33 (1999) 1892.  D.H. Kim, Y.S. Mok, S.B. Lee, Thin Solid Films 519 (2011) 6960.  M.S. Gandhi, Y.S. Mok, J. Environ. Sci. 24 (2012) 1234.  L.M. Zhou, B. Xue, U. Kogelschatz, B. Eliasson, Energy Fuels 12 (1998) 1191.  D.R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th Edition Internet Version, 1405-1438, CRC Press/Taylor and Francis: Boca Raton, FL, (2010). List of figure Fig.1.Schematic diagram of the experimental setup Fig. 2. Typical signal of the voltage, current, and discharge power (total flow rate = 100 ml/min; CHF3 in feed= 5% of volume; applied voltage= 7 kV; frequency=30 kHz). Fig. 3. Effect of applied voltage on (a) conversion of CHF3 and discharge power, (b) component of products; and (c) carbon balance and selectivity of products (total flow rate = 100 ml/min; CHF3 in feed= 5% of volume; frequency=30 kHz). Fig. 4. Effect of initial concentration of CHF3 on (a) conversion of CHF3 and discharge power; (b) component of products; and (c) carbon balance and selectivity of products (total flow rate = 100 ml/min; applied voltage = 7 kV; frequency=30 kHz). Fig. 5. Effect of frequency on (a) conversion of CHF3 and discharge power; (b) component of products; and (c) carbon balance and selectivity of products (total flow rate = 100 ml/min; CHF3 in feed= 5% of volume; applied voltage = 7 kV). Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 1
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Which is the better suspense story, "The Red Room" or "The Landlady"? The Red Room is a short story which is written by H.G Wells. It is a story about a young man who decides to go into a room which is believed to be haunted. The old people who live in the house which has the haunted room believe that is haunted but the man himself does not believe that it is haunted. As the story continues, we find that the man does go into the haunted room. He takes some candles and matches into the room with him to feel more safe and also because then he can see the room in the darkness. When he reaches inside the room, he lights up many candles which he palces around the room, and he also lights up the fireplace. Soon he starts to find that the candles that he has lit are beginning to blow out in all directions of the room and feels as if soeone is blowinig then out. He can not see anyone and he starts to relight the candles. He also begins to feel as if there are shadows behind him. Soon the candles start to blow out very quickly and then the fireplace also is blown out. He is left in the room with no light and he can not see anything. He bangs into the furniture in the darkness and collapses. The next day, the man wakes up to find that he is downstaires and out of the haunted room. He realises that the old people were right and that there are ghots in the room. He admits that he was vary scared and also realises that he was wrong and that the old people were right. The Landlady is a story written by Roald Dahl. It is about a seventeen year old boy called Billy Weaver who needs a place to stay in for one night in Bath. He looks around at many places to stay such as a pub but he chooses to stay at a simple ... ...w beginning builds up the tension of the story. The reader is more aware of what is happeninig and also able to predict what is going to happen next in the story. However, the story "The Landlady" begins with narrator of the story describing the weather and the main character. The narrator describes the setting of the story as being a very cold, dark winter night. "The air was deadly cold and the wind was like a flat blade of ice on his cheeks" The narrator also describes the main character, Billy Weaver as being a teenager all alone in Bath. Also, as Billy walks around the town, the narrator describes as being deserted. "There were no shops on this wide street". This also builds up the tension of the story. The Landlady, has a smaller, less completecated and confusing opening which keeps the reader following the story and does not confuse or bore it.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Edgar Allan PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Fall of the House of UsherÃ¢â¬ and William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ are two examples of Gothic literature. There are many characteristics of Gothic literature ghostly settings, glumness, and evil predominant over good. All of these traits exist in both stories. Gothic literature was more often than not set in an old building, house, or castle that depicted human decomposition, which formed a feeling of unknown and apprehension. William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ , and Edgar Allen PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The Fall of the House of UsherÃ¢â¬ , both use gothic elements of technique in relating the exterior in order to reflect the grimness these characters feel. The main characters of both stories, Emily, and Roderick both attribute similar characteristics since both stories are of similar Gothic literature. Although both main character deal with Gothic storyline and death there is a lot that the two do not have in common. The title Ã¢â¬Å"The Fall of the House of UsherÃ¢â¬ not only pertains to the collapse of the mansion but also to the lingering family members living within the building, and in this case mirrors the characteristics of Roderick. Ã¢â¬Å"The Fall of the House of Usher,Ã¢â¬ starts off on a Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the yearÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ The reader right off the bat is attentive of the grim sense of fester and death. RoderickÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood friend (the narrator) explains, Ã¢â¬Å"a sense of insufferable gloom pervaded spiritÃ¢â¬ as he came closer to the house. Many similarities link the character to the physical attributes of the gothic house throughout the story. On the other hand Emily, in Ã¢â¬Å"A Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ had a Ã¢â¬Å"big, squarish frame house that had once been white, decorated with cupolas and spires and scrolled balconies in the heavily lightsome style of the seventies, set on what had once been our most select street. Ã¢â¬ Throughout her seventy-five years Miss EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s house went from a beauty to Ã¢â¬Å"an eyesore among eyesores. Ã¢â¬ She along with Roderick by the end of their lives were living in old, dark, decaying mansion with spider webs and dust everywhere. Although both of these characters have very similar environments they had different views when it came to death. RoderickÃ¢â¬â¢s character is accepting the death of his sister, repenting and not mad, while Emily is not regretful and not in her right mind. ? Lady Madeline, RoderickÃ¢â¬â¢s sister by incest, becomes very ill and dies leaving Roderick as the last of the family. Roderick puts her into a tomb in his house and he later comes to find out that she is not dead. On the contrary, Emily, finds out that Homer, her lover was either homosexual or Ã¢â¬Å"not the marrying typeÃ¢â¬ she uses arsenic, rat poison, to kill him so she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t being abandoned by him. Therefore Roderick lost his lover due to illness, so he thinks, and Emily murders hers so she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be alone. Both characters have a skewed perception on love and relationships, which makes them similar. Roderick has unnatural relationships with his family. Him and his twin sister and the only two left of the Usher family and he is in love with her. Roderick doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a relationship to society he has no friends. He also does not have much of a relationship with nature; nature ceases to exist around his home. Black water, and decaying tree trucks surround it. He also has an unnatural relationship with his own mind. His mind and body are at war with each other. He is very sensitive to light, he canÃ¢â¬â¢t take noise and he only can eat very bland food. When a human being has no support system at all they go crazy. Emily had very unnatural relationships. She was controlled by her father, and was not allowed to go out with anyone. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what love was so she clung to her father and held on to what she knew. When her father passed she searched for love and found Homer, she wanted him there all the time. This relationship was very twisted because when she found out he did not want her she killed him and slept with his corpse every night so she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel abandoned. After she passed many people came to her funeral Ã¢â¬Å"the men through a sort of respectful afflictionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"the women mostly out of curiosity to see the inside of her houseÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The difference between Roderick and Emily was she had known by people in her town but had not seen them or spoken to them Ã¢â¬Å"in at least ten years. Ã¢â¬ Even with some similarities, there are many differences between the Roderick and Emily. One case in point is their madness level. It is apparent that neither Roderick nor Emily is in their right minds but it also very apparent that Emily is absolutely delusional. Roderick is alone since his sister Ã¢â¬Å"diedÃ¢â¬ and has no one, like I stated before when you have no support system whatsoever it is only a matter of time before you loose your mind. Roderick does grieve over his sisters Ã¢â¬Å"deathÃ¢â¬ and takes care of her body respectfully by putting her inside of the tomb. When Roderick finds out his sister is still alive he ends up dying with her in his arms from pure shock. Ã¢â¬ ¦then with a low moaning cry, fell heavily inward upon the person of her brother, and in a violent and now final death-agonies, bore him to the floor a corpse, and a victim to the terrors he had anticipated. Ã¢â¬ Emily on the other hand lives in a state of denial. She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay bills or taxes, she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize that colonel is dead, she refuses to number her house, her house is very old and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t fit in the town, and she still has china paintings. She murders her Ã¢â¬Å"loverÃ¢â¬ and continues to sleep with his corpse and seeÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing wrong with anything she is doing. She is down right insane. She was not seen as a monster because she had never seen love and she was just trying to hold on to what she perceived as love. Both of these characters were in extreme psychological states but in the Ã¢â¬Å"Fall of the House of UsherÃ¢â¬ Roderick states, Ã¢â¬Å"I have no abhorrence of dangers, except in its absolute effectÃ¢â¬âin terror. Ã¢â¬ By this he tries to explain himself as a frightened and misconstrued man, not a crazed lunatic. This confirms the conclusion of repentance. Emily shows no shame by keeping the man she murdered and continuously sleeping with his corpse. She believes she has done no wrong and that he was wrong for wanting to leave her. Roderick nonetheless feels saddened when he believes that his sister passed away and when he finds out that she was still alive he feels shocked, guilty, and shameful. His sister was all he had and he did not want her to leave him just like Emily did not want Homer to leave her but Roderick was not a murderer unlike Emily. Wrapping up, there are many comparisons between Roderick and Emily, as well as many, discrepancies between the two characters. They both had no sense of time, they both were in extreme psychological states, they both had skewed ideas of love, they both had very unnatural relationships, and they both lived in old Gothic mansions. The underlying meaning of both of these stories had to do with death and both of these characters ending up dying at the end of the story. In conclusion there were more similarities than differences but when you read more into the stories the characters were very different in many ways.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Using Chocolate Bars to Teach Fractions Believe it or not, teaching fractions can be both educational and delicious. Use The Hersheys Milk Chocolate Bar Fractions Book and kids who once crumpled their brows in frustration at the concept of fractions will suddenly salivate at the mere mention of this important math concept. Theyll even get to the props - milk chocolate bars! Not everyone loves math, but surely everyone loves Hersheys Chocolate Bars, which are conveniently divided into 12 equal squares, making them the perfect manipulatives for demonstrating how fractions work. This witty and kid-friendly book walks you through a straightforward lesson that serves as a fantastic introduction to the world of fractions. It starts off explaining the fraction one-twelfth in relation to one rectangle of chocolate and continues all the way up through one whole Hershey bar. To do this lesson, first get a Hershey Bar for each child or each small group of up to four students. Tell them not to break apart or eat the bar until you instruct them to do so. Set the rules upfront by telling the children that if they follow your directions and pay attention, then they will be able to enjoy a chocolate bar (or a fraction of one if they are sharing in groups) when the lesson is over. The book goes on to include addition and subtraction facts and it even throws in a little science for good measure, offering a brief explanation of how milk chocolate is made! Some parts of the book are really funny and clever. Your kids will hardly realize they are learning! But, sure enough, you will see the lightbulbs go on as their eyes sparkle with understanding that they didnt have prior to reading this book. To close the lesson and to give the children a chance to practice their new knowledge, pass out a short worksheet for them to complete before eating the chocolate bar. The kids can work in small groups to answer the questions. Then, if they are splitting a bar, they have to figure out how many rectangles each child should get in order to split it equally. Have fun and rest easy as you know that your kids will really be able to visualize fractions after this delicious lesson. A hands-on lesson with scrumptious manipulatives always helps drive a concept home better than a dry, lifeless blackboard lecture. Keep this in mind as you plan future lessons. Dream up new and creative ways to reach your students. Its certainly worth the extra effort!
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Canadas Independence After World War One Essays Canadas Independence After World War One Essay Canadas Independence After World War One Essay Essay Topic: Brave New World Canadas Independence Following World War One Without the tragedies that occurred during World War One, Canada would not be the nation it is today. Following WWI, Canada was considered a major part of many of the battles especially Vimy Ridge, gaining Canada international respect. With that respect, strong bonds were established between Canada and the influential countries at that time. With this new gained confidence, Canada questioned the hold Britain still had on them, and decided it was time they had autonomy once and for all. Autonomy gained Canada international independence but it resulted in the decline of its international economy. In the course of World War One, Canada lost many soldiers during warfare but through those soldiers efforts, independence for Canada was found. Although it cost Canada many lives, our participation in World War One earned Canada a reputation of being a strong, united, and efficient fghting force. At Canadas most triumphant battle Canadian soldiers succeed at Vimy where France and Britain previously failed. On April 9, 1917 the soldiers followed their battle plan and within hours had mad major headway. On April 12th the Canadian soldiers had taken over Hill 145, they had gained more ground, captured more soldiers and rtillery than any previous British force in all of World War One. But this victory came at a price. Canada lost 3500 men and 7000 were left injured. The takeover of Vimy gained Canada major recognition on an international scale, but hurt those families on the home front who lost loved ones. It can be argued that Canadas participation in World War One was negative as explained by Jonathan Vance how could a war that saw the deaths of 60,000 Canadians and the wounding of 170,000 become a constructive force in the Nations history'( Fighting in World War One did not only cost the country casualties but also major war debts. Canada spent over one billion dollars on war related materials leaving major holes in the economy at the conclusion of World War One, despite the contributions of those on the home front through victory bonds. Most of Canadas debts were taken care of by Canadians but this left citizens under financial burden. Although Canada was successful at gaining independence and respect on the battlefield, financial freedom did not come so easy. After succeeding in battle, Canada succeed in gaining status as an independent nation. Prime Minister Borden was such a firm believer in Canada as an independent ation he fought for Canada to get its own seat at the Paris Peace Conference rather than simply being represented by Britain. He was successful in his efforts. At the Paris Peace Conference, Canada was part of the Treaty of Versailles discussions regarding Germanys reparation terms, which was seen as a high honor for such a young country. Borden also got Canada involved in the newly forming League of Nations. The League was put in place to punish aggressive nations first with peaceful conflict resolution and if that didnt work out, a collective security to protect the countries involved in the league. Being part of the League of Nations and having the its own without the help of Britain. Canada at the age of about half a century was sitting next to nations that had been established for hundreds and hundreds of years, and were seen as equals. Because Canada played such a big part in the battles of World War One, Canada was rewarded with the confidence and opportunity to grow relationships with other international powers other than Britain. The new Prime Minister Mackenzie King continued on the pathway to independence that Borden started at the conclusion of World War One. Prime Minister King realized the hold that Britain had on Canada politically following the 1925 election. Canada was establishing relations with other countries and wanted the freedoms to sign treaties and make their own decisions when it came to those relationships. Britain on the other hand was still trying to hold onto what they had. In 1922 the Chenak affair arose between Britain and Turkey. Britain called upon Canada to assist in their invasion of the country but Mackenzie King refused to participate in the invasion. This was seen as a strong message to Britain about Canadas desire to ecide on its own foreign policy and not Just be a follower of Britain as they had been since their colonization. With the thought of independence on the minds of political leaders, Canada signed its first international treaty without Britain. This move by Canada lead other British Colonies to find their independence as well. Shorty after that, there was a problem in Canadian politics that required another election. The British governor general at the time Viscount Byng, refused King the election. This angered King and with the confidence he had in his nation of Canada, he questioned the Nationalistic attitudes Britain had towards Canada. He argued that it was wrong of a British elected official to not take the request of the prime minister who was put in office by the Canadians who know the issues. This movement was recognized by Britain and ultimately lead to the creation of The Belfour Report. Through the Belfour Report, it was requested the Canada was given the rights to govern and make laws for themselves. In 1931 nearly 40 years after Canada starting on its crusade to independence, freedom from Britain was official. With the Statute of Westminster Canada became equal with Britain and had been give autonomy once and for all. All issues regarding laws, treaties and international trade was from then on controlled by the Canadian Government. Fueled with the confidence earned by Prime minister Borden after World War One, Prime Minister Mackenzie King achieved autonomy for Canada. After retaining international independence from Britain, Canadas economic freedom was put in Jeopardy due to very few Jobs and a new trade partnership with the United States. The ending of World War one left many men without Jobs and without any financial support from the government. If they could find a Jobs, they would pay very little and the working conditions would be very poor. Employers took advantage of the desperate situation. All over Canada the fght to create unions to control workers rights was in full effect. Strikes were held all over Canada, the largest being in Winnipeg. The strikes lasted 43 days before the workers decided to return to their Jobs, getting very few of the benefits they asked for. Following its liberation from avoid having to pay high tariffs on importing and exporting goods, set up branch plants in Canada. Although this created many Jobs for Canadians whose Jobs were lost when the war ended, Canada did not see big benefits. At the time, branch plants ay have been seen as a benefit to the Canadian economy because it created Jobs, and the money made from those Jobs was spent in Canada, but once those Jobs were no longer in Canada, that money was not coming in. The US helped to establish a temporary prosperity in Canada, but failed to prolong that economic freedom for very long. Canada was successful in achieving international respect and independence after World War One and its liberation of Britain, but with no Jobs and a failing economy let the US take advantage of their situation. Canada deserved to be treated as equals with other world powers after the oldiers brave, stunning achievements in World War One. It was Canadas time to break away from Britain and grow into its own. Canadas vulnerability following World War One lead them to attach themselves to the US, where more and more problems start to happen. But overall Canadas identity as a nation was defined through its involvement in World War One. Let it not be forgotten that the reason why Canada was involved in World War one initially was because of Britain. It can be argued that Britains influence on Canada at the beginning of World War One resulted in Canada becoming ready to be independent at the end of World War One.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Constitutional Challenges Associated With Investigating Cybercrimes - Term Paper Example However, these developments have presented the world with new types of threats that can potentially compromise security, privacy, and safety of the internet users. As a result, there have emerged modern systems of law enforcement that are aimed at providing security and order and at the same time maintaining liberty and freedom in an open society. Rapid technological developments have called for intense policing of cyberspace as these developments have threatened to cyber security not just in individual countries, but has also transcended individual countries boundaries (Walden, 2005). Cyber security has been threatened by the new methods of communications and increasing freedom and anonymity in communications. There has been increasing need to balance between providing order and security in the cyberspace and maintaining freedom and liberty in the society. Cybercrime is the term that is being in describing security challenges and threats that the cyberspace is facing in the face of rapid technological developments. In simple terms, cybercrimes are defined as any criminal acts which deal with computer networks and computers. Also, cybercrimes are defined as the criminal acts or offences which are committed against groups of individuals or individuals with a criminal intentions aimed at harming the reputation and status of the victims or to cause mental or physical harm to the victim either indirectly or directly, through the use of modern networks of telecommunications such as the mobile phones and the internet. Cybercrimes not only threatens individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ security, but also threatens national and international security. Issues that surround cybercrimes include copyright infringement, child grooming, financial theft, privacy, cracking, espionage, cyber terrorism and child pornography among others (Hinde, 2003). It is agreeable tha t cybercrimes is one of the most serious crimes that the world is facing currently as it threatens not only individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ security but also national and international security. The serious nature of these crimes is evident by the intense measures that have been put in place to counter them both at the national and international levels (Taylor and Morgan, 2002). There are concerted efforts among all the telecommunications players, national governments, and the international community to counter cybercrimes and the threats that such crimes present. However, whereas there is the desire to counter cyber crimes at all levels, this desire and efforts are hampered by the various challenges associated with investigation and prosecution of cybercrimes. One of the main challenges that face efforts to counter cybercrimes is constitutional challenges. In particular, constitutional challenges greatly hamper the efforts to investigate cybercrimes (Walden, 2005). In order to have a deeper un derstanding of how constitutional challenges affect cybercrimes investigation, this paper will seek to analyze the constitutional challenges and how they are associated with investigating cybercrimes. In the United States, just like in most countries of the world, all the laws and procedures and practices such as investigation and prosecution should be consistent with the constitutio
Friday, November 1, 2019
Organizational Behavior Principles - Essay Example If there is no conflict within a group, the question is whether the group is actually in total agreement or whether the members of the group lack innovative thinking and are therefore willing to accept any project set forth At this group's level of management, it seems unlikely that either of these situations exists. Therefore, where there is conflict, there must be resolution. Otherwise, the unresolved conflict will build with time, and success of the team will be compromised (Heathfield, 2002). Team Work - In any team, diversity can be an issue. The personalities of the team members, gender, ethnic background, and attitude all must be considered in creating a working relationship with fellow team members. Understanding and appreciating differences becomes a major consideration in resolving conflicts, as well as the ability of the team to reach an agreement when looking at a new proposal. Teams must have respect for each other and show a willingness to listen to other solutions, rather than considering one's solution to be the only one (Becton, Wysocki, Kepner, 2002). Cooperation and Compromise - In discussing suggestions for project ideas to be present