Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Pete Rose Essays (641 words) - Major League Baseball, Baseball

Pete Rose Should a man who has over 4256 hits be kept from the Hall of Fame because he bet on a few baseball games? The hits leader in major league baseball is banned from baseball, does that make any sense? Pete Rose deserves to be in the baseball hall of fame because of his actions on the field, not off. To not have the all time hits leader not in the hall is total insanity. My personal opinion as you can already tell is that I think Rose should be in Cooperstown, NY. I think Pete should be in the Hall of Fame because of his outstanding stats, love and appreciation for the game, and for all that he could do for baseball if reinstated. Pete Rose was one of the all time greats in baseball even though he does not get recognized for anything that he does. Rose the 1975 Sportsmen of the Year is banned from baseball because of his alleged gambling on baseball games. Rose also was MVP of the world series for the Reds when they won in 1975. Rose never struck out more than 76 times in a season. His all time batting average is .303, while only striking out 1 in every 12 times up at the plate. Rose batted from both sides of the plate while he threw the baseball with his right hand. Pete has numerous records some which include: most seasons with at least 150 games played, most at-bats, and even most seasons with at least 200 hits. I think what really puts the icing on Petes cake though is that the city of Philadelphia gave him the ?living legend? award from the Philadelphia Sports Writers Association. If Rose is really a legend (which he is) then he belong with all the other legends in the Hall of Fame. Any athlete in any sport should appreciate what Pete has done. Every coach should hope that they have players who play hard, play the right way and respect the game. I think that's the way Pete played. With Roses hell bent, love of the game style he had a positive impact on players throughout the 24 years that he played. When you think of Rose you think of Charlie Hustle running out walks, hurling himself head first to take a extra base, and breaking the most vulnerable record in baseball- Ty Cobb's 4191 hits. When Pete was rudely interviewed by NBC's Jim Grey it only proved about how much of a personal man Pete Rose is by being very polite back to Grey after repeatedly saying that he did not bet on baseball. Pete Rose is a true character and without him the Hall of Fame is lacking. If Pete would be reinstated it would do wonders for the game just like mark McGwire and Sammy Sosa did in 1998. Pete Rose would bring back a character that alot of baseball has missed for many of years. Pete could be a great coach on any team and show the younger players all the ?tricks of the trade?. I think if Pete does not get into the hall of fame in the next 2-3 years then he will not get in until after his death. I can see Bud Seligh doing something that dumb: waiting until the best hitter that ever lived dies and then let him make the hall. One way or another Pete deserves to be let back into baseball and if he could come back it would benefit everyone. In conclusion, Pete Rose should be in the hall of fame for his on the field actions. Ten years is a long time. Even Charles Manson gets parole hearings, and Hall of Famers, as Rose points out, aren't all altar guys Finally, 4,256 is so many knocks that without Rose the Hall of Fame ought to have a big asterisk on its front door. Pete deserves what he has earned so why dont Bud Seligh just give it to him. Sports and Games

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Organisational Group Behaviour

Introduction Organisational group behaviour comprises of a wide array of topics ranging from sociology, psychology, management, to communication among others. All these elementary principles are critical to the formation of an effective group. This area is a dynamic concept that has received a lot of attention because the various theories regarding organisational group behaviour are somewhat novel in their application in this context.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Organisational Group Behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More As such, the theories have existed for quite a long time, for instance, the vital quality of communication as an icebreaker in any relationship, but their specific application to an organisational context requires further expertise. Numerous theorists have attempted to piece together what necessary elements are requisite in achieving this desirable intricate balance, and most of these theorists have ended up writing books that are too complex for lay managers and group leaders. Subsequently, readers and authors alike are in the quest for a simplistic explanation of what comprises organisational behaviour, as well as analogous case studies and real-life examples of how to apply this knowledge. Based on this background, this paper seeks to use the publications of two â€Å"more comprehendible† authors, Ian Brooks’ â€Å"Organisational Behaviour: Individuals, Groups and Organisation† (13 Nov 2008) and John Hunt’s â€Å"Managing People at Work: A Manager’s Guide to Behaviour in Organisations† (1 Apr 1992), to provide a better understanding of organisational group behaviour concepts and theory. Structural context There are several possible entry views to organisational group behaviour. One such view bases its arguments on the time factor and classifies its discourse within the modern, symbolic, and postmodern view. This view is a very general theory as the finer elements as motivation and communication are lost in the attempt to categorise organisational behaviour into periods. Conversely, another view subdivides its discourse into a bi-pronged format comprising of macro and micro organisational behaviour.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Under this view, micro-organisational group behaviour focuses on the dynamics of relations between individuals in groups within a particular organisation, whereas macro organisational behaviour focuses on the wider perspective of inter-organisational and inter-industrial relationships of organisational groups. It follows that this dimension is the preferable view within the context of this paper because the second dimension, (macro) builds on the theories observed with the first (micro) as they are similar but applied on a wider scale. As such, loo king at the macro level simply expounds the initial theories while introducing minimal additional information that becomes significant at the macro level. Both Brooks and Hunt use this perspective in their textbooks, and this aspect assists the reader in further understanding the concepts they are building. Principle-agent problem and the Incentive Theory (motivation) This theory is a cocktail of both human resource and management theory and is expounded by both Brooks and Hunt. Conventionally, the incentive theory is one among the variety of motivation theories such as Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, equity, and the attributive theory. It posits that human beings need some form of incentive that arouses their desire to achieve a certain envisioned goal. Brooks opines that the motivational force ought to direct the subjects and maintain their concentration upon the attaining of the goal, otherwise the force would be ineffective and the goal would remain elusive. Hunt builds on t his opinion by referring to the misguided notion of monetary gain as an incentive. He asserts that money alone cannot maintain an individual’s focus on achieving some goal; moreover, he observes that other extrinsic factors such as the work environment and labour gratification are key players in maintaining motivation. However, a study conducted by Fehr and Gotte (2007) indicates that monetary rewards are the major driving forces of improved performance. In this context, Brooks fails to categorise work places and appreciate the fact that in some organisations especially in developing countries, workers would rather work under abusive conditions than to lose their only source of income, something that Fehr and Gotte highlight clearly in their study.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Organisational Group Behaviour specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Laffont and Martimort (20012) also note that monetary rewards remain at the top in the hierarchy of employee motivation. In today’s capitalistic market place the majority of workers just want to have money, lots of it and thus money remains a key motivation element. Industrial Revolution Brooks and Hunt discuss this concept although in different dimensions. The industrial revolution is responsible for the diversification of labour and the labour market. It follows that individual group members have possibly invested in human capital to attain proficiency in a variety of tasks. Consequently, organisational groups are often infiltrated with diverse individuals with just as diverse skills; therefore, organisations in need of those skills find themselves at a risk of losing priceless talent and profits if they are incapable of managing the organisation’s staff as per the optimal standards. Brooks states that, on-the-job trainers invest millions each year to internal educational programs meant to qualify employees and employer s to the specific or customised needs of various task forces. However, he adds, such investment can easily turn into loss statements if the firm does not set its house in order in terms of the other elements necessary to retain group satisfaction. He suggests that organisational group behaviour in the 21st century has since shifted from the scientific approach theory that only required leaders to identify the objectives then appoint customised members to fulfil their respective related obligations. Instead, it has shifted in line with human relations approach, which was a result of the Hawthorne studies that determined the significance of group norms on human behaviour and work output. Beyond that, the decision making approach that alludes to principles of opportunity cost comes into play and asserts that for optimal results, group members should be in a position to sacrifice decisions that would not yield optimal conditions for goal achievement when making goal-oriented decisions.A dvertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He further states that for such a decision to be made, loyalty to the group is necessary, and that there exists several ways of earning such loyalty including achieving group-member buy-in, which refers to feelings of ownership in the desired objectives that group members are required to achieve. There are several possible ways of accomplishing this starting with involving members in decision and strategy design. Building a comprehensive group culture that the members identify with, as a constant during turbulent times, also helps along the turbulent journey to achieving loyalty in a group. Additionally, it is important to ensure that in appointing duties, the process is equitable and uniform in order to avoid social loafing, which refers to the tendency of some group members taking a spectator approach leaving the majority of the tasks to more competent members. In an attempt to counter this element, Hunt holds that there should be specification of tasks for each group member, to e nsure that every group produces results necessary for the comprehensive conclusion of the task. He also suggests that members should be motivated so that they do not feel dispensable and this aspect requires the delegation of equally challenging tasks, which require effort and cooperation to achieve. Hunt introduces the Neo-Human’s relations school concept that is fit for the modern organisational group due to its allegiance to various famous theories, especially Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. As such, members will work optimally if all five levels of human needs, viz. psychological, love, safety, esteem, and self-actualisation are met. He adds that the self-transcendence tier that Maslow added to his hierarchy near death also requires attention, as in his opinion, this tier underscores the inexorable force behind the success of philanthropic successes. Additionally, he suggests theory Y dimensions of management by asserting that members inherently act responsibly while on a task and that the role of leadership is to ensure that they achieve their individual goals through working on the organisation’s objectives. Hunt favours theory Y and states that it carries the mark of true leadership in any organisation to get the employees to work as if they were building their own personal business, while working for the organisation. This concept builds on Brooks’ buy-in concept. Nevertheless, Bobic and Davis (2003) note that theory Y has many inherent weaknesses, which underscore why many firms have failed miserably in the contemporary market place; therefore, they insist that theory X would work best for these firms. Stewart (2010) echoes these sentiments and states that while theory Y might underscore one of the best management techniques, it is not applicable across board and thus it might score poorly in some cases. Communication Communication is a vital element of any group’s dynamics and it comes into play when any task is to be executed. Communication in a group can be categorised into two basic faucets. First, there is the leader-member communication that transcends the vertical structure of the group and is made manifest in case a new task is to be achieved. Groups should set up forums for discussing new responsibilities among members including the best implementation technique, and when there is participation at this initial stage of decision-making, the transition into the new policy becomes smoother. Secondly, the significance of confidentiality of shared communication cannot be overemphasised. The concept of assessment results is a sensitive issue especially if it is internal and members are required to evaluate each other. Assessors should be sensitive to malice as this element can adversely affect the report done on a member. As organisations continue to market free and open communication, whistle blowers find themselves in jeopardy of losing their employment or its equivalent in the form of their status at work among peers. Therefore, it is critical to guarantee that their complaints shall be handled with utmost confidentiality and ethical means in order to foster free disclosure and raise the ethical standards of the organisation. Linked to this concept is the management of unethical conduct. Brooks suggests that any viable organisation should put in place some structured methods of dealing with unethical behaviour within its ranks, and that such a method should be applied uniformly and persistently regardless of who the victim may be. This, he adds, shall be instrumental in inspiring confidence among workers due to the predictability of the system. Group leadership Through job design, praise, constructive feedback, and goal setting, a leader can motivate members to perform better. As concerns goals, SMART goals, viz. Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time bound goals are very effective. Leadership marks a point of divergence between Brooks and Hunt as the la tter’s idea of ideal leadership is one that orders and controls member behaviour to achieve organisational goals, whereas Brooks prefers leadership that advances member interests and manages to accomplish organisational objectives simultaneously. As per Brooks, such leadership is characterised by extrinsic features of openness such as open offices and regular assessments of performance aimed at improving member’s prospects of advancements. This argument disappears from Hunt’s notion of a visible gap between the management and human resource departments of an organisation, which features leaders receiving blatant displays of an appreciation for their status in the form of fringe benefits and accolades. Whereas both authors drive a poignant point, this paper insists that, a less-obvious gap between the two groups is more favourable. However, Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn (2000) note that it is important have clear-cut boundaries defining who is in charge because in the absence of such a distinction, anarchy or chaos could easily emerge and thus lead to the disintegration of a group. Conclusion This paper has briefly compared and contrasted the views of two famous authors of organisational group behaviour in a contemporary concept. It has analysed several areas of interest including motivation, the industrial revolution its impact on organisational groups, communication, and leadership. Both authors are commendable in their brief yet very comprehensive analysis of group behaviour, and the credibility of each other is somewhat reaffirmed when one’s views complement the other’s. However, Mr. Brooks is more convincing of the two and this paper has capitalised on his superior positions on group behaviour. Reference List Bobic, M Davis, W 2003, ‘A Kind Word for Theory X: Or Why So Many Newfangled Management Techniques Quickly Fail’, Journal of Public Admin. Research and Theory, vol. 13 no. 3, pp. 239-264. Fehr, E Gott e, L 2007, ‘Do workers work more when wages are high? Evidence from a randomised field experiment’, American Economic Review, vol. 97 no. 1, pp. 298-317. Laffont, J Martimort, D 2001, The Theory of Incentives: The Principal Agent Model, Princeton University Press, New Jersey. Schermerhorn, R, Hunt, J Osborn, N 2000, Organisational Behaviour, Wiley, New York. Stewart, M 2010, ‘Theories X and Y Revisited’, Oxford Leadership Journal, vol. 1 no. 3, pp. 81-87. This research paper on Organisational Group Behaviour was written and submitted by user Shania Kerr to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Free Essays on Highball

HIGHBALL What is highball? An exaggeration of the truth to benefit the person that is highballing. To stretch the truth. To extend the truth to fit one’s idea of what should have been the truth in their mind. An outright LIE! You’re going to class and you see a fellow classmate and you both have Biology together. Last week you both took a test in Biology on Cell Division. Your fellow classmate asks you what you got on that test. You say, I got an â€Å"A† but in reality you really received a â€Å"B† (89). The â€Å"A† sounded better, you just highballed your fellow classmate. Your profession is to sell cars, to sell as many cars as you can on a month to month basis. Salespeople highball all the time. An example of this would be when a salesperson is asked what their yearly average is, and they respond that they average 10 units a month. In actuality this salesperson has only sold 10 units one of the months out of the whole year. The salesperson has just highballed his average so that it would sound as if he was averaging about 10 units each month. The same can go for customers. I personally have been a sales associate. I sold furniture. Many times when customers purchase furniture, it being so costly, many customers had to finance their purchases. I would take an application on the customer, which required information like how much they make a month, how much money they have to pay out a month, and collateral. All of the information being verified, but commonly a customer would tell me they make two thousand five hundred dollars a month, when in reality they make about eighteen hundred dollars a month. When verifying how many bills and the amounts they pay out on those bills, I found that most customers had highball the figures. All this just so they could get approved to purchase merchandise by financing it. Common knowledge, you would think, would keep the customer from highballing the figures to their advantage, kno... Free Essays on Highball Free Essays on Highball HIGHBALL What is highball? An exaggeration of the truth to benefit the person that is highballing. To stretch the truth. To extend the truth to fit one’s idea of what should have been the truth in their mind. An outright LIE! You’re going to class and you see a fellow classmate and you both have Biology together. Last week you both took a test in Biology on Cell Division. Your fellow classmate asks you what you got on that test. You say, I got an â€Å"A† but in reality you really received a â€Å"B† (89). The â€Å"A† sounded better, you just highballed your fellow classmate. Your profession is to sell cars, to sell as many cars as you can on a month to month basis. Salespeople highball all the time. An example of this would be when a salesperson is asked what their yearly average is, and they respond that they average 10 units a month. In actuality this salesperson has only sold 10 units one of the months out of the whole year. The salesperson has just highballed his average so that it would sound as if he was averaging about 10 units each month. The same can go for customers. I personally have been a sales associate. I sold furniture. Many times when customers purchase furniture, it being so costly, many customers had to finance their purchases. I would take an application on the customer, which required information like how much they make a month, how much money they have to pay out a month, and collateral. All of the information being verified, but commonly a customer would tell me they make two thousand five hundred dollars a month, when in reality they make about eighteen hundred dollars a month. When verifying how many bills and the amounts they pay out on those bills, I found that most customers had highball the figures. All this just so they could get approved to purchase merchandise by financing it. Common knowledge, you would think, would keep the customer from highballing the figures to their advantage, kno...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Studies in Literature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Studies in Literature - Essay Example A plot carries nine elements including exposition, foreshadowing, inciting force, conflict, rising action, crisis, climax, falling action and denouement. The three elements of plot have been described below: (ii) Conflict: Conflict is the central and most dominant part of the piece of literature, which is the basic element in the creation of plot itself. The developments in the story are dependent of rising of man’s conflict with his social set up, culture, religious belief or his own self. (iii) Rising Action: Rising action simply means the subsequent chain of events created in the aftermath of conflict. Rising action is generally the outcome of immediate provocation or inciting force that paves the way towards reaching the climax point. NOVEL: Literally means something new, latest or innovative, novel refers to the work of fiction, story or tale, narrating some anecdote about one or few specific character(s) in a long prose form. Novel is stated to be the invention of 18th century, and Richardson’s Pamela (1741) is considered as the first novel in the history of English literature. Though novel arrived as a genre of literature very late in comparison with the drama and poetry, yet it immediately captured the attention of the readers everywhere, and has become one of the most popular forms of modern literature. A novelette also contains the same characteristics as carried by a novel, but the major difference between the two is this that novel consists of comparatively large number of words and characters, while a novelette is precise in respect of words and list of characters. Tolstoy maintains remarkable command over portraying the bitter realities of life on the one hand, and pointing out the prevailing social evils on the other. Being a highly sensitive writer and a brilliant observer, he skilfully inter-knits the events happening in the life of his

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

WAL-MART ORGANIZATION Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

WAL-MART ORGANIZATION - Essay Example Nevertheless, history has a different story in the waves the organization has had to face on the way to today’s position as a global player. The organization internal environment business model is based on value proposition, which rides of offering everyday low price. Distribution efforts in the organization are effectively planned to have the organization have direct contact with customers through media adverts as well as through such cheap means as internet. The organization has also effective customer relations through self-service as well as automated services for efficiency and effectiveness. It highly esteems basic resources spanning from the physical ones including logistics and physical stores, human resources as well as the organizational culture. The organization acknowledges the role of the forces of internal as well as external business environments in shaping the success of the business. Despite the internal organizational structure, the organization holds own emp loyees with esteem as critical part of the internal environment of the organization. Competition as an external factor has continuously influenced the operations of the organization with special attention being taken for the sake of monitoring and keeping pace with competitive developments in the industry (Davis, 2007). Among other notable strengths of Wal-Mart organization are growth and high returns through customer satisfaction, creating profits as well as enhancing value for shareholders. The capacity of the organization to expand continuously into new markets and opening new stores, integrating new online channels as well as upholding great success in innovation and... The great vision and dedication of the top management of the Wal-Mart organization ever since its establishment has been acknowledged to play a critical role in the success of the organization. Leadership has been seen to play a great role in the performance of the organization despite the competition pressures that have been pointed out to form the basis of derailing the organization from realizing the guiding mission. This would form my basis of recommendation to the management of the organization. Competition has become quite dynamic in almost all aspects of business dealings and no one business or industry is immune to the challenge. In this understanding, adoption of rather dynamic management practices is inevitable for an organization to keep pace with the global trends. Adoption of centralized inventory system through which management of the various chain stores of the organization is inevitable in order to have the organization realizes the strategic objectives and goals. I p ropose to the owner of Wal-Mart to uphold high levels of innovation and creativity in management practices in order to cut on the rising costs and command a competitive niche through continuously offering lower prices. This is because other competitors in the industry would rise in competition through exploiting these competitive niches while the Wal-Mart organization does not.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The Role of NGOs in Chechen Conflict Research Paper

The Role of NGOs in Chechen Conflict - Research Paper Example When the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, Chechnya, which was then part Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic in Northern Caucasus, also declared its independence. It was in December 1994 that the Russian Federation launched a military operation against the rebelling state. This ended in 1996 with a humiliating defeat for Russia, and Aslan Maskhadov was elected as Chechen President in 1997. However, despite of peace treaty signed between the two countries, Chechnya relapsed in a turmoil that the fairly elected president was unable to control. This was due to the destruction from the war, failure of Russia to provide promised war reparations, external interference by Islamic radicals, swelling crime and inter-Chechen enmities, which granted excuse to the Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin to launch a second war against Chechnya in 1999, in name of combating international terrorism, but with an obvious purpose of forcing Chechnya back into the Federation (Faurby, 1999). The combat continues as a guerrilla war with ample loss of life and resources on both sides and bleak prospects for hostilities to end soon. International humanitarian laws and human rights laws have been extensively violated on both sides. Reports estimate death toll to be around 80000 since, while the number of displaced to the neighbouring Dagestan is estimated to be 300000 (IRC, c.2006). Russian political leaders were insistent that the warfare was an internal matter for Russia, something that many western leaders were eager to approve, as they did not want the Chechen conflict to hinder their relations (Cornell, 1999). This was not only politically problematic, but also a breach of international laws. However, as the Non Governmental Organization (NGOs) like the Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International increase their activities in human rights field by bringing to light the violations and lobbying

Friday, November 15, 2019

CHF3 Decomposition by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

CHF3 Decomposition by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor Decomposition of CHF3 by a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor Duc Ba Nguyen and Won Gyu Lee* Abstract Oxidation of CHF3 was investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor was immersed in an electrical insulating oil. The feed gases was mixed of CHF3, O2 and N2 with O2/N2 ratio of 21/79 volume/volume. The results obtained that 98.98% of CHF3 in the feed gases were destruction under: applied voltage of 7kV, frequency of 30 kHz; total flow rate of 100 ml/min with initial CHF3 concentration of 5%. Herein, selectivity of CO and CO2 in the products was 3.42% and 91.18%, respectively. Decomposition of CHF3 could be increased by improved plasma condition such as increasing applied voltage, increased frequency and decreased initial CHF3 concentration in the feed gases. Keywords: CHF3, dielectric barrier discharge, electrical insulating oil, plasma reaction, oxidation of CHF3 Introduction Decomposition of trifluoromethane (CHF3) is high potential reduce greenhouse gases. Because the 100 years global warming potential of CHF3 is 12000 [1]. Several methods have been employed for the decomposition of CHF3 such as thermal process [2-4], catalyst [5, 6]; plasma or combined plasma with catalyst (CPC) [7-11]. Thermal oxidation is one of effective CHF3 decomposition [12]. However, HF acid and formation fluorinated compounds existed in the exhaust gas stream along with high operation temperature (1473 K) [2]. It mean that the process is high cost, require material reactor and concern environmental. Thus, other process are required for treatment of exhaust gas such as absorbed acids, cooling process and decomposition of fluorinated compounds before ambient atmospheric emission [2, 11]. Catalyst methods could be reduced operation temperatures in the abatement of CHF3. However, HF formation and also operation temperature above 500 0C lead to reducing effective of catalyst [13-15]. Several above challenges could be solved by plasma or CPC, including, non-thermal plasma (NTP) is attractive and effective decomposition of CHF3 [16, 17]. Decomposition of CHF3 in NTP is lead to interaction between of high energy electrons, radicals and gas molecules. Herein, NTP could be generated high energy electr ons and radicals under high energy electrical. Therefore, decomposition of CHF3 could be performed at room temperature, ambient atmospheric pressure, fast conversion and easy realization by plasma method. However, several researchers have been reported the decomposition of CHF3 by catalyst or CPC with several thousand parts per million of CHF3 in the feed gases [18, 19]. It demonstrated that process yields were low. Moreover, the emission source of CHF3 is semiconductor industries, air condition, polystyrene industries and commercial refrigeration. So that the gas waste included CHF3 and air. Therefore, abatement of CHF3 in the gas waste is need before into atmosphere. In this study, decomposition of CHF3 with Zero Air (21% O2 and 79% N2) performed in a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge reactor under initial CHF3 concentration was not less than 5.0% (v/v). The reactor was immersed in an electrically insulating oil bath. Effect of several factors on the reaction investigated, namely, applied voltage, applied frequency, initial CHF3 concentration in the feed gas. These factors were examined on the decomposition of CHF3 and product components. Experimental The schematic of the experiment setup is shown in Fig. 1. A system is composed of four main parts: a feed gas system, an AC high voltage pulse power supply, a plasma reactor, and an analysis system. The reactor has an inner stainless steel stick as the power electrode that is 15 mm in diameter. The power electrode was placed inside a quartz tube as a dielectric barrier. Its outer diameter was 20 mm, and its thickness was 1.5 mm. Therefore, the discharge gap was fixed at 1.0 mm. Copper foil was wrapped around the quartz tube as the ground electrode, and its length was 200 mm. Thus, the discharge volume was about 10 ml. The plasma reactor was immersed in an electrically insulating oil bath (transformed oil provided by Michang Oil, KSC2301). The volume of electrical insulating oil bath was about 5000 ml. AC pulse power supply with 2 kW capacity was used for plasma ignition, which had a supply voltage and a frequency up to 30 kV (peak-to-peak) and 30 kHz, respectively. The electrical power was controlled by manual adjustment of the applied voltage level. The power waveforms were recorded by an oscilloscope (Tektronix 2012B). Fig. 2 showed a typical voltage, current, and discharge power waveforms generated under the process condition: total flow rate of 100 ml/min with CHF3 in the feed of 5% (v/v), frequency of 30 kHz; applied voltage of 7 kV. Discharge power was integral of current and voltage as shown in the equation below: Discharge power (P), (1) All of the experiments were performed at ambient atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The volume of gas products was measured by a soap-bubble flow meter. The composition of the gas products was analyzed by a gas chromatograph (GC, Younglin YL6100GC) equipped with a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) and a flame ionization detector (FID). A CarboxenTM 1010 PLOT capillary column was used in the GC column and the flow rate of Ar as a carrier was 6.0 ml/min. The products of plasma reaction with mixing of CHF3, O2 and N2 included N2O, NO2, COF2, F2, CF4, CO, CO2, CHF3, O2, N2 and so on [19]. However, the GC analysis could detect the reaction products including CO, CO2, and CHF3. According to the analysis of the products, the overall conversion, carbon balance and selectivity were defined as follows: (2) (3) (4) (5) Results and discussion Effect of applied voltage An applied voltage is important factor in the plasma process. Which is usually used to ignite and sustain glow discharge. Moreover, the degree of plasma reaction depend on the level of applied voltage, for example conversion of reactants and selectivity of products [19, 20]. The effect of applied voltage on the reaction was investigated under applied voltage from 4 to 7 kV, total flow rate of 100 ml/min with CHF3 concentration of 5% in the feed gases; frequency of 30 kHz. The results was shown as in fig 3. At applied voltage of 4 kV, the conversion of CHF3 obtained at 0%, however, the conversion of CHF3 was increased sharply from 5 to 7 kV applied voltage in fig 3 (a). The results demonstrated that energy input at applied voltage of 4 kV into discharge zone was not enough for dissociation of gases molecules. It due to lack of electron and radical formation for plasma reaction. However, electron and radicals for plasma reaction could be formed when applied voltage above of 4 kV. In ad dition, bond-dissociation energy of F-CHF2 and H-CF3 were 539.9 and 445.2 kJ/mol-1 at 298 K, respectively [21]. Discharge power increased sharply from 8 to 41 W, when applied voltage increased from 5 to 7 kV. It was caused of increasing CHF3 conversion in these experiments. Consequently, concentration of CHF3 in the gas outlet was 0.054% at applied voltage of 7 kV as shown in fig 3(b). An applied voltage was also effect on the component of gas outlet. The concentration of CO2 were increased significantly by increasing applied voltage from 5 to 7 kV, while, the concentration of CO were changed slightly during those experiments as shown in fig 3(b). In fact that, more radical and molecules in the discharge zone could be formed under high discharge power such as F, H, CF3, CF2, COF2, COF, CO, CO2, F2 and so on [19]. Therefore, conversion of reactants and products formation increased. Moreover, the selectivity of CO2 increased from 40% to 89% when applied voltage from 5 to 6 kV. Consequently, it increased slightly at applied voltage of 7 kV as shown in fig 3 (c). On the contract, the selectivity of CO decreased slightly from 5 to 6 kV and then it decreased gradually at applied voltage of 7 kV. The results due to increasing radical oxygen formation in the discharge zone when applied voltage increased from 5 to 7 kV. Carbon balance decreased slightly, when applied voltag e increased from 6 to 7 kV. It mean that total selectivity of CO and CO2 decreased. In fig 3 (c) shown that decreased selectivity of CO caused of reducing carbon balance. As the results, the maximum conversion of CHF3 obtained at 98.98% under applied voltage of 7 kV, frequency of 30 kHz, total flow rate of 100 ml/min and CHF3 concentration in the feed gases of 5%. Herein, the selectivity of CO2 and CO 91.18% and 3.42% in the product, respectively. Effect of initial CHF3 concentration Conversion of reactants could be improved by reducing initial amount of reactants in the feed. However, it caused of decreasing yield processing. Effect of initial CHF3 concentration on the reactions were investigated under applied voltage of 7 kV, frequency of 30 kHz and total flow rate of 100 ml/min. The results was shown in fig 4. The conversion of CHF3 decreased slightly from 98.98% to 95.94% when initial CHF3 concentration in the feed increased from 5% to 15%. It was as shown in fig 4 (a). The results demonstrated that conversion rate of CHF3 depended slightly on the range of initial CHF3 concentration. It was due to increased amount of CHF3 molecules in the discharge zone together with decreasing power discharge when initial CHF3 concentration increased as shown in fig 4 (a). Because of total flow rate constant, if CHF3 molecules increased then Nitrogen and oxygen molecules decreased. Moreover, bond-dissociation energy of O-O was 498.36 kJ/mol-1 at 298K. It is low than bond-dis sociation energy of F-CHF2 (539.9 kJ/mol-1) but higher than that of H-CF3 (445.2 kJ/mol-1) at 298 K [21]. At initial CHF3 concentration of 15%, the ratio of CHF3/O2 in the feed was 1/1.19. Several reason above due to conversion of CHF3 depended slightly in the range of initial CHF3. Initial concentration of CHF3 was effective on the concentration of CO2 in the products. However, it did not significantly on the concentration of CO and CHF3 in the products as shown in fig 4 (b). In the detail, concentration of CO2 increased from 4.79% to 14.20% when initial CHF3 concentration increased from 5% to 15%. On the other hand, concentration of CO were increased from 0.18% to 0.38%, while, increasing CHF3 concentration remain from 0.05% to 0.69%, respectively. In fig 4 (c) presented that the selectivity of CO and CO2 were decreased slightly by increasing initial CHF3 concentration in the feed gases. They caused of decreasing carbon balance during increasing initial CHF3 concentration in the feed. As the results, reactant conversion and products selectivity were depending slightly on the initial CHF3 concentration from 5% to 15% in these experiments. Effect of frequency Frequency of applied power is important factor along with voltage. Because they effected on the discharge power (equation 1) and applied power waveform. The effect of frequency on the reaction were investigated under condition of 7 kV applied voltage and 100 ml/min total flow rate with 5% CHF3 concentration in the feed. The results was shown in fig 5. It showed that the conversion of CHF3 increased significantly from 10 to 20 kHz; then it increased slightly at frequency of 30 kHz. While, discharge power increased gradually when frequency increased from 10 to 30 kHz as shown in fig 5(a). One of reason increased CHF3 conversion was increased discharge power when applied frequency increased from 10 to 30 kHz. Applied frequency also effect on the component of products. It was shown in fig 5 (b). Concentration of CO2 increased significantly from 2.89% to 4.79%, while, concentration of CO decreased from 0.36% to 0.18% when applied frequency increased from 10 to 30 kHz. Although, decreased CO concentration rate is twice when applied frequency from 10 to 30 kHz but it was small compared with concentration of CO2 in the products. As the same trend of concentration in products, the selectivity of CO2 increased, while, the selectivity of CO decreased when increased applied frequency as shown in fig 5 (c). The results presented that trend of CO2 and CO selectivity were opposed. It was caused of carbon balance did not change significantly from 10 to 20 kHz. However, carbon balance were increased when applied frequency increased from 20 to 30 kHz. It could be explained by that the selectivity of CO2 increased was more than reducing of CO selectivity at frequency of 30 kHz. Therefore, total molecules of CO and CO2 were increased when increased applied frequency from 20 to 30 kHz. In addition, carbon balance depending on total molecules of CO and CO2 (Equation 3). Consequently, increasing of applied frequency was not only increasing CHF3 conversion and CO2 selectivity but also reduced the selectivity of CO. Conclusion Destruction of CHF3 with zero air by a coaxial dielectric barrier discharge immersed in the electrically insulating oil bath was investigated. Several factors were effect on the reaction has been studied such as applied voltage, frequency and initial reactant concentration. 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Effect of applied voltage on (a) conversion of CHF3 and discharge power, (b) component of products; and (c) carbon balance and selectivity of products (total flow rate = 100 ml/min; CHF3 in feed= 5% of volume; frequency=30 kHz). Fig. 4. Effect of initial concentration of CHF3 on (a) conversion of CHF3 and discharge power; (b) component of products; and (c) carbon balance and selectivity of products (total flow rate = 100 ml/min; applied voltage = 7 kV; frequency=30 kHz). Fig. 5. Effect of frequency on (a) conversion of CHF3 and discharge power; (b) component of products; and (c) carbon balance and selectivity of products (total flow rate = 100 ml/min; CHF3 in feed= 5% of volume; applied voltage = 7 kV). Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 1